You can test out of the The Art of the Painted Finish for Furniture & Decoration. Egregious examples of this are objects who have been "cleaned" with a (traditional) mixture of linseed oil, spirits of turpentine, beeswax, and vinegar. Acrylic resins tend to be more stable than nitrocellulose, and in some cases are extremely stable. The most commonly used gold leafs are the alloys around 22 karat, which may be obtained in a variety of shades, depending on the alloy composition. Benzoin is not particularly useful as a film forming material, and was instead important as a perfume in the varnish. … 1-15. It's not hard to understand why they took it so seriously. To a large extent, the types and styles of ancient Roman furniture followed those of their Classical and Hellenistic Greek predecessors. For that reason, poultices should contain a soft, film forming ingredient such as methyl cellulose or low weight (poly)vinyl acetate (PVA) or (poly)vinyl alcohol (PVOH) resin along with the cleaning agent itself. Southall, Anna. Elemi is a very soft resin, probably the softest of all natural resins. Washington, DC: American Institute for Conservation, 1988. Since cleavage and chalkiness, and their associated loss, are the most prevalent problems faced by polychrome objects, consolidation of the paint layer is a common portion of treatments. However, if a strong enough rationale can be presented, part or all of the coating material can be manipulated or even removed and replaced. Work tables, used for crafts, arts, and cooking, were different than decorative tables used to hold lamps or sculptures, which were different than dining tables. Solvents, as the name implies, are used to dissolve the resin (the "solute") into an appropriate liquid (the "solvent") which can be applied to the surface of the object. What would we like to accomplish vs. What are we able or unable to accomplish? They're amongst the most underappreciated elements of our society, but where would we be without them? 56-59. 5. The combination of craft skills with materials science in choosing stable finishes eliminates some historic materials from consideration while adding other modern ones to replace them. Conflict Between Antigone & Creon in Sophocles' Antigone, Quiz & Worksheet - Desiree's Baby Time & Place, Quiz & Worksheet - Metaphors in The Outsiders, Quiz & Worksheet - The Handkerchief in Othello. It should also be mentioned that visual compensation can be conducted at the conclusion of any of the treatment options, and can be applied by brush, spray or pad. Synthetic resins which are thermoset include urethanes, phenolics, amides, polyesters, epoxies, and amino resins. The craft skills employed in finish conservation are virtually identical to those used other finishing procedures, although the application of those skills may be highly specialized. To resolve the problem, an adhesive must be introduced into the void between the substrate and the coating and the lifted material "massaged" into contact and conformity with the substrate. Contrary to the "strip and dip" approach to dealing with coatings so prevalent in many commercial refinishing and restoration shops, conservators and sensible restorers attempt to preserve the coating on the object whenever possible. study ----- "Solvents and Solutions - Part 2," The Woodfinisher, no. New York: Viking Press, 1981. Plasticizers, flatting agents, and sanding lubricants are added to alter the properties of the dried film. 1. 1, 1984, pp. The technique of applying metal leaf, frequently called "gilding" regardless of the metal in question, involves the gluing of thin metal foil to the surface of an object. The list of historic finish materials is a long one encompassing hundreds of different items. However, for the reasons enumerated above, conservators do not consider any portion of an object to be routinely expendable, including finishes and coatings. Hill, John H. "The History and Technique of Japanning and the Restoration of the Pimm Highboy," The American Art Journal, vol. Ancient Rome 509Bc-180 Furniture in Roman houses tended to be sparse, since the occupants liked space and simplicity in their decor. 1, 1982, pp. Solubility and Solvents for Conservation Problems. Candelilla is extracted by cutting and drying leaves followed by shredding the plant material and soaking it in tanks for solvent extraction. Shellac: Its Origin and Applications. Finally, there is the practitioners obligation to keep accurate and detailed records for future reference. Reviews of coating materials by chemical constituency can be found in several of the references listed after the conclusion. Preservation and restoration deals not only with furniture of the ancient past but also of the recent past. Bottler, Max. Couches are one area where we see a wide variation between rich and poor. Both historic and contemporary fabricators of wooden objects generally consider(ed) coatings, particularly "non decorative," to be a potentially sacrificial element of the whole. Ara Pacis Museum. For either application the wax must be made into a liquid mixture which allows the appropriate manipulation of the material for application onto the surface of the substrate. If the deterioration also involves he mechanical failure of a supporting gesso layer or bole layer (which are particularly susceptible to repeated humidity cycles), this can in turn cause fracture and delamination to the laminar system. New York: John Wiley, 1943. Familiarity with historic materials, their use, and their appearance makes these decisions more easily reached. Commonly used vegetable dyes included madder root, berry dyes, saffron, alkanet root, indigo, and annatto. Obviously, more examples of marble furniture have survived than wooden furniture. London: International Institute for Conservation, 1990, pp. The needs of the object vs. Degraded coatings may be partially or completely reformed using solvents. In the decorative arts, this fascination manifested itself in a taste for Classical Revival elements. Drying oils harden by a chemical reaction between oxygen and the fatty acids which compose the oil, a process which may be modified by the specific preparation schedule and process. If the surface coating is clean and physically sound yet needs additional optical saturation and enhancement, a wax coat may be applied. 8., no. alcohol on shellac, etc. As with transparent coatings, stable polychrome surfaces can be visually enhanced by the application of wax or resin coatings. A balance is always sought between stabilization and restoration, which may require alteration of the piece as it currently exists, while preserving the historic information contained or discovered in the piece being treated. Even if there is a full understanding of the chemical and historical aspects of finishes, that knowledge is of little value without the craft skills needed to solve the problem. On its own, electromagnetic radiation, of which visible light is a small part, causes degradation resulting in fading or color change to most components of furniture coatings. just create an account. Damars are harvested by slashing or wounding trees and collecting the raw exudate which may be solid or liquid, akin to the tapping of maple trees for the sap to be processed into maple syrup. Townsend, editors. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1985. In this instance the coating would be more damaged by the cleaning than by the continued presence of dirt on the surface. Philadelphia, PA: Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology, 1986. However, fractured films are susceptible to further damage if an attempt to brush or rub off dirt is carelessly done. While all copals are of vegetable origin, some have been fossilized and some are balsams, or exudates from living trees. Some metallic pigments were used to imitate or accentuate metal flake, and include powdered materials of an immense range of metallic alloys. Instead, the guidelines presented are an attempt to provide some direction within that broad framework to help focus considerations of the damage and also the appropriate treatment options available to compensate for it. Wealthier families, who had a lot they needed their house gods to protect, often built a sacrarium, a home chapel, but the poorer families likely had to place altars on cabinets or shelves. 77-101. Material quality is certainly a fundamental factor in furniture preservation and restoration when engaging in treatments that will remain "healthy" for centuries. Furniture was so important in Roma that it even helped shield Romans from spiritual harm. New York: Watson Gupthill Publications, 1979. It had the face of the god Oceanus on it. ATTENTION! However, lakes are generally not as opaque nor are they lightfast as true pigments. French Furniture in the Eighteenth Century: Case Furniture. Gently Vacuumed - A term widely used, but rarely measured! They were light, cheap, easily portable and found all over Roman homes. Inside the museum, the object's function and purpose is often to just stand there and look a certain way, and bear the evidence of history. and W.M. This experience generally does not include a study of the fundamental nature of finishes, much less the areas of optics, color theory or analytical methodology. Layers of the gesso are built up on the wood substrate until the appropriate surface is achieved through texturing, smoothing, and carving. Beeswax tends to be soft with a low melting point of 60-65°C/140-149°F. So, a good knowledge of the chemical nature and properties of the solid finish film, its solvents, and its behavior at each step of existence, is essential. Hicks, Edward. Preprints of the Papers Presented at the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation. It is in this step that experience with and knowledge of historic coating materials and techniques is invaluable. ------ "Fluorescence of paint and varnish layers. "The Conservation of an Eighteenth-Century Japanned English Clock Case" in Lacquerwork and Japanning. Vegetable resins of particular importance to the history of furniture coatings are damar, colophony, copal, sandarac, mastic, elemi, benjamin, amber, manila, and urushiol. If the intent is to only partially reform the coating, such as when re adhering a delaminated coating to the substrate, the solvent may be introduced in a vapor chamber with good success. Lac wax, a by product of processing seedlac into shellac (see below), is much harder than beeswax and is used in formulations of polishing and coating waxes but remains a wax of relatively minor importance. The Romans took their home lives very seriously and used their furniture to reflect their identity as Romans and their place in the Roman world. Fourth, restoration should be detectable under close scrutiny, to insure that future caretakers and scholars are not confused or misled by what may appear unaltered to casual or uninformed viewers. In extreme cases, the entire object may be re leafed, and the new leaf visually modified to fulfill the aesthetic requirements of the treatment. London: International Institution for Conservation, 1970, pp. Roman furniture is largely based on Greek and Etruscan precedents but can be categorized into a few types. Rome: ICCROM, 1985. Drying mechanisms are separated into two broad categories; solvent release and polymerization. They may not be well-skilled, well-trained, or well-informed, but almost always they are well-intentioned and willing to "do the right thing" when guided toward informed choices. Davis, Marylou. Romans made their furniture from wood, metal, or stone (generally marble). The first option for damaged leaf work, regardless of manifestation, is to remove and eliminate the cause of damage. Furniture caretakers must possess a wide range of craft skills and knowledge: joinery, marquetry, veneering, carving, turning, and of course finishing. Another ubiquitous furniture item in Roman homes was the couch. The oil may be used in this form but is frequently processed and purified using a large number of procedures to achieve specific properties. Carnauba is purified in much the same manner as beeswax, and is the hardest of all naturally occurring waxes. Animal dyes were cochineal, lac, and kermes, all from insects, and tyrian, a brilliant purple dye from shellfish. A shrine to the house gods ensured protection for your family and provided a place for prayer and offerings. In general, as with transparent finishes, the goals of any treatment involving a decorative painted surface determine the treatment options. Polymerization may be initiated and accelerated by heating the oil, saturating it with oxygen, or by adding metal salts to act as catalysts called "driers" to the formulation during refining. Wax was also present in other oil/resin type paints, both in solution and as emulsions. Traditionally, waxes came from either animal or vegetable sources, but in recent generations the development of wax like materials has emerged from the synthetic chemistry fields, particularly petrochemicals. Careers with a History and Politics Degree, History PhD Program Rankings: List of Top Schools, Videography Schools and Colleges: How to Choose, Speech Pathology Graduate Programs in Ohio. Furniture - Furniture - History: Beds, stools, throne chairs, and boxes were the chief forms of furniture in ancient Egypt. An example of the terminology confusion previously mentioned is that "benjamin" is frequently identified as gum benzoin, and sandarac as gum juniper. Vegetable dyes included any coloring material which could be removed from any plant. 59-84. 3) Fleming, S.J., 1999: Roman Glass: Reflections on Cultural Change, Appendix A (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum). In the Deterioration Section it was pointed out that most deterioration of leafed surfaces is not with the leaf itself but with the substrate. For example, a dining table may be carved with images of hunting or Bacchus, god of wine. Turpentine and other coniferous soft resins were obtained from processing sap from coniferous trees, which was in fact part of the same process for obtaining colophony. Bole enables mechanical burnishing of the substrate with a cloth, usually linen, which in turn provides a nearly flawless substrate to which the leaf is applied in the water gilding manner. Oil polishes and oil/resin varnishes are less thermoplastic, and depending on the formulation of the coating can also be removed with solvent solutions, although stronger solvents are required. What Does It Mean to Have a Painting Restored & How do I Pick a Conservator? New York: Dutton, 1972. While there was a major pantheon with figures like Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus, every Roman town had its own unique deities as well, as did most buildings. The basic procedure for reforming is to first determine which, if any, solvents modify and reliquify the existing coating. Deposits of the exudate are removed with the branches as they are cut off the host tree, and are called "stick lac" in this raw state. Using hot wax as a paint layer is called "encaustic" and is one of the oldest forms of applied painted decoration. Due to its broad solubility and its compatibility with many other resins, particularly at slightly elevated temperatures, damar is often used in the formulation of varnishes. London: Chapman and Hall, 1979. 7. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. For resins and gums the drying process is exactly the opposite of the liquifying process. London: Crafts Council, 1982. Whether either turpentine or colophony was to be the product or the by-product depended on the perspective of the enterprise. This is one area where Romans differed from the Greeks. The needs of the user Furniture helped the Romans live their Roman lives. In the first instance the damage can be caused by surface contamination, as in instances where non-gold portions of the leaf oxidize or tarnish, thus changing color from that intended by the makers. There are several ways of organizing reviews of materials. Paint/Coatings Dictionary. There are, however, exceptions. Common "retarding" solvents such as glycol ethers, are used since they are both excellent solvents, and can remain active on a treated surface for days. English Ornament Prints and Furniture Books in Eighteenth-Century America. Stick lac is crushed, winnowed, and washed to remove dirt and lac dye, which is water soluble. Solvents Safety Handbook. The task is to find a process that works for making decisions in the broadest possible set of circumstances. What Can You Do With a PhD in Criminal Justice? Chemical degradation of coatings depends on the chemical stability of the coating materials themselves, and environmental factors which may assist any degenerative reactive process. Carnauba is a palm wax, present as a film on the leaves of some South American palm trees. European Revivalism. This technique is frequently enhanced by burnishing the freshly oiled surface with heated pads, which serve to simultaneously accelerate the polymerization and to polish the surface yielding a relatively durable finish of high gloss. Principles of Color Technology. Roman Coin Bracelet - Museum Shop Collection $98.00 $67.85. Furniture was an important part of functional life and fashion in nearly every settled society, and ancient Rome was no exception. "A systematic approach to the instrumental analysis of natural finishes and binding media." All rights reserved. Their intractable nature and questionable stability usually remove them from consideration for use as coatings in the treatment of historic wooden artifacts. Paraffin wax, as might be ascertained by the name, is a saturated hydrocarbon derived from petroleum with chain lengths of 25-30 carbons. The manifestation of coating deterioration depends en toto on the kind of film forming materials used, additives used to modify that material, and the various environment conditions to which the coating has been subjected. Madison, CT: Soundview Press, 1991. "Removal of an Insoluble Varnish From an 18th Century Clock Case." For the caretaker of historic furniture this understanding is critical as there may not be a second chance when working on a historic finish. Anything less than pure gold is an alloy comprised of a portion of gold along with other metals. Study.com has thousands of articles about every ), acids, or alkali solutions. Roman Coin Earrings - Museum Shop Collection $35.00 $24.85. Due to the fact that degraded organic materials are sensitive to extreme pH conditions, non ionic detergents are preferred, even though as cleaners they are not as effective as strongly alkali solutions. Mixtures are formulated depending on the specific problems encountered. Any of the areas of discussion here, coating materials and techniques, coating deterioration, and treatment of degraded coatings, could and have filled volumes. 154-159. and structure (relative humidity [RH] shifts and ensuing dimensional-change-caused deterioration). Heckscher, Morrison H. and Frances G. Safford. Sandarac is a relatively soft resin which is obtained as a balsam from North African conifers. Balestrem, A. McCann, Michael. For example, if the wrong solvent or procedure is used to clean a surface, the existing finish may be destroyed. In reviewing options for the treatments of coatings, it is important to remember that not all treatments deal exclusively with degraded coating films. - Definition & History, Quiz & Worksheet - RAID Arrays & Data Redundancy, Quiz & Worksheet - History & Evolution of Computers, Quiz & Worksheet - Distributed Database Architecture, Quiz & Worksheet - The History of the Internet, Organizational Theories & Human Resources, Training and Development in Organizations, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. Most of the objects were recovered during building operations in the City of London and Southwark. Shellac is an exudate from the insect Laccifer lacca, which is indigenous to India and Indochina. Like damar, the term copal actually refers to an imprecisely defined group of natural resins. "Urishi and Conservation: the Use of Japanese Lacquer in the Restoration of Japanese Art," Ars Orientalis, vol. That artifact, found in Old Basing about 50 miles southeast of London, dates as far back as the 1st century. The first of these is to visually ascertain the damage and, if possible, formulate an idea as to the cause of the deterioration. The second method usually employed to evaluate the coating condition is to test the surface with solvents, to see if and how the coating reacts to individual solvents or combinations of solvents. Transparent varnishes are important to the interpretation of an object and as such should be retained whenever possible. Interpreting, preserving, protecting and restoring finishes on historic furniture combine to form one goal within the larger framework of furniture care. Another instance of a traditional material being inappropriate for finish care is linseed oil or other drying oils. London: Crafts Council, 1982. 4. New York: F.A. The options below are roughly listed from least intrusive to most, but this listing is by no means the final word on the subject. 1-13. Pigment or dye toning is frequently employed following the application of new leaf to diminish the visual disparity between old and new leaf. In the early years of the 19th century, Americans became fascinated with the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome. Historical Context: This earring is solid gold and was produced by the ROMAN EMPIRE around the 1st to 5th Century AD. Once these notions are addressed, and questions answered, we are well on the way to designing a thoughtful, reasonable, and ethical path to future actions (or inactions), Deciding What Materials to Use in Restoration. Another option is "oil gilding," which uses an oil/resin varnish as the size and results in a matte surface. Finally, the examination involves analytical methods, including instrumental determination of the coating constituency. too fragile to survive the rigors of applying and buffing a coat of wax, the surface can be saturated with an easily removable resinous coating. This anecdotal information is usually quite accurate, but it is also very limited. Mayer, Ralph. Waxes can be applied as clear coatings on objects, or as opaque paints. It must also be noted that many, if not most formulations of coatings for wooden objects contain components from several of the groupings. 1046-1061. Exceptions would be abrasion loss of leaf and oxidized non gold leaf. The Ancient Home brings you back the glory of an empire creating a collection worthy of collectors and enthusiasts of ancient Roman decor and artifacts. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981. The following treatment options and procedures are presented in that light. Candelilla is also a leaf wax, being derived from a shrub indigenous the U.S. southwest and northern Mexico. This is true for all artifacts, whether they are paintings, sculpture, furniture, or any other object of historic or artistic importance. Philadelphia PA, 1978. The mechanism and manifestation of deterioration of metal leaf on furniture occurs both at the microscopic metal layer at the surface and in the underlying ground or size layers. The most basic component of Byzantine culture was the Christian religion, which profoundly influenced … The simplest manifestation of this last occurrence is the removal and damage of surface coatings via abrasion as witnessed in coatings being simply scratched or rubbed away completely. The success of this approach depends entirely on the thermoplasticity of the existing film material. Painting techniques vary from verisimilitude to neutral value crosshatching which merely acts to diminish the distraction caused by the damaged area. These range from humble tools and personal items to artefacts used in rituals such as … Urushiol, or Oriental lacquer, is derived from the sap of the rhus tree, an eastern relative of poison sumac. Garner, H.M. Chinese Lacquer. 102-108. Philadelphia, PA: Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology, 1986. Rather than having strict DO and DON'T rules, it is vital to rely instead on the abilities and experience of the practitioner to make correct judgements within broad guidelines. The problem in decision making and furniture care occurs when we apply the wrong expectations and limitations to the wrong circumstance. Evidence of this method of "preserving" furniture and wooden objects is readily apparent in most museum collections. A number of alternative detergents are available which are soluble in petroleum thinners or other mild organic solvents. XVI, no. Quiz & Worksheet - Who is Judge Danforth in The Crucible? Among these are waxes, gums, and oils, plus natural and synthetic resins, all of which can be used as transparent coatings. As mentioned above linseed and other oils may be modified to enhance the drying qualities of an oil film. Cellulose Nitrate in Conservation. In general, much of the distinction revolves around the hardness of the natural materials and their solubility. Flatting agents, which disperse incidental light on the coating film thus reducing specular reflection, include metal stearates and silicates. It is prudent to mention at this time that inpainting should not done directly on bare wood, but should instead be executed as a laminate with resin coats above and below, which serve to isolate the coloring layer in between. Both tempera and casein are initially water soluble materials which become less soluble once dry; in the case of milk paint, the coating becomes virtually intractable when dry. De Renzo, D.J., editor. This is accomplished by the polymerization of the mono or oligomeric constituents of the formulation. However, this distinction become increasingly murky when consulting historical texts and recipe books which refer to ingredients as gums or resins while contemporary usage invokes the opposite definition. Pigments were also made from naturally occurring mineral gemstones such as azurite, ultramarine, and malachite. Diminishing mechanical stresses through mitigation of environmental fluctuations (relative humidity [RH] especially) should always be part of the best possible scenario for preserving coatings. It follows that some general conclusions can be reached for furniture preservation which direct all treatment procedures, including finishes. These liquids may degrade the film to the point where it is no longer a viable whole, or may simply remove all or part of the coating by dissolving it. 4, 1980, pp. Billmeyer, Fred and Saltzman, Max. In circumstances where the substrate has shrunk, it may be necessary to trim some of the tented coating in order to allow the set down paint to fit into the space remaining. It was the seat of a government that perpetuated many Roman administrative and judicial practices. "Detergents soaps surfactants," in Dirt and Pictures Separated, Hackney, Stephen, Joyce Townsend, and Nick Eastaugh, editors. As a group, waxes and wax like materials tend to be extremely stable and form excellent vapor barriers when an uninterrupted layering is achieved. Earth pigments include umbers, ochres, siennas, chalk, Indian red and terra verde. By the addition of dyes or pigments to transparent materials, paints are formulated. In Papers Presented at the Wooden Artifacts Group, New Orleans 1988. What Can You Do With a Masters in History? The simplest chairs, known as sella, were essentially stools. French Furniture in the Eighteenth Century: Seat Furniture The three large curtain fragments (ECM 6300, 6301 and 6305) are examples of the most common form of decoration on late Roman textiles. Beauty was created by mosaics, frescos and water features and other features of Roman interiors rather than by use of elaborate furnishings. 2. Once the ground has been stabilized, or if it is stable to begin with, the surface can be cleaned. Furniture - Furniture - Middle Ages: With the collapse of the Roman Empire during the 4th–5th centuries, Europe sank into a period in which little furniture, except the most basic, was used: chairs, stools, benches, and primitive chests were the most common items. Styles, structure, and thus are harder and have higher melting points first option for damaged leaf,... Framework Presented for treating transparent coatings pertains also to polychrome surfaces, although they were less common, some did... Story of the film forming material to become liquid, and is removed from the pistachio trees ancient roman furniture museum the falls! Romans differed from the comb by melting it with heat well versed in the decorative arts, fascination. Or visual or physical properties of specific paraffins are entirely dependant on the other later on finishes, or steaming... And Strasbourg turpentine leaf itself can then be burnished to a relatively soft resin which is unstable and can applied! In recent times is that coatings alter the properties of the Painted finish for furniture preservation direct. Herculaneum were discovered in 1748 and what has been stabilized, or if it is commonly! Elegant and costly in the interpretation of an Eighteenth-Century Japanned english Clock Case ''. Must also be noted that many, if not from living trees desired. Artifacts Group, new Orleans 1988 mechanically by abrasion, etc. mechanically! Restoration, 1983, pp.11-16 is extracted from the Greeks gum turpentine include Venice turpentine and Strasbourg.... Such should be retained whenever ancient roman furniture museum next option would be abrasion loss of to! Painted surfaces, are the acrylics to build up the layers of ground called! Topics will take you to the second point, is the mechanism for drying Ars Orientalis, vol,... Of decorative Painted surface determine the treatment procedure defined Group of natural resins 36.85. 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