Example:   “ The system shall have a threshold response time of less than or equal to 1.0 seconds, with a goal of  less than or equal to 0.25 seconds.”  The requirement that must be verified is the first value, however I have communicated to the developer I would like better performance – if it doesn’t have a large impact on cost and schedule. “A shall be compatible with a system that will (c).”. Ken Adams. . Technical Specifications. shall go . Cette spécification couvre le fabricant, l'acceptation et la livraison des tubes en acier avec soudé par résistance électrique pour soudure longitudinale des tubes de canalisation de gaz. When you write : “The system shall have a response time of 1 second, it should have a response time of .25 seconds.” I would have use it on the contrary : should respond in 1 s (which is the most difficult, may be too expensive) but at least, it is mandatory that the system shall respond in 25 s. But for the moment, I don’t find anything. Careful writers, however, still observe some of these distinctions. "It has been lost." When an In that regard, shall has a valuable role to play. English Future Tense - Shall vs Will. will has a negative form: I won’t be (or will not be) at home next Saturday. "must." Including the shall indicates this is a binding requirement that will be verified. These tests will help you to learn, review, and refresh your knowledge about English Future Tense - Shall vs Will in English. Requirements are complicated enough – we advise that when writing requirements, stick to the basics. Module Switching Specifications vs. Relay Switching Specifications . 1. "must" and "should" somewhere in between. Must – Don’t use must because no one has defined how must is different from shall. The change amid shall and will is often unseen by the fact that while we usually conversation other people in speaking use just with. In either case, standard convention is to allow for several attempts in case an innocent mistake is made, like caps lock being on. "the defendant shall vacate the premises by October 16". However, shall is used more in legal circles while must is used more often by common people. “Shall” is ambiguous, and rarely occurs in everyday conversation. Why include should (goal) statements in your requirement document? *All product specifications and features displayed may vary from the actual product and shall be subject to the actual product. Both of them indicate the fact that something is mandatory and should be carried out as a duty. Often, in combining contract provisions from different sources or in marking up a draft contract, a party easily introduces the other verb. The commercial sector may use goals in  their product specs as a way for Marketing to communicate extra “bells and whistles” that could make the product more attractive to the consumer. In this example it is intuitively obvious that it happens immediately. Must and its negative must not shall never be used, since one of its meanings is synonymous with ought and should. To correctly use "shall," confine it to the meaning "has a duty to" and use it … English Future Tense - Shall vs Will - Test 01. This is especially true during early life cycle phases that determine market requirements and, I think, with agile development. Will is "shall." LRT, I think you miss read the values. CSI's Manual of Practice states the way the words For a format standpoint I usually put conditional phrases at the end of the requirement. It seems like you switched the use of Shall and Should in your example. The legal community is moving to a strong preference for “must” as the clearest way to express a requirement or obligation. • In contracts, ‘Shall’ is used to impose obligations or duties on the parties to the contract. Shall or will in contracts. obligation on the part of the contractor is indicated, it should be Traditionally, conventions dictate that: ‘Will’ when used in the first person, conveys an obligation, whereas ‘shall’ merely a future intention. They are usually used interchangeably in both the British and U.S. English languages. Given that the goal is to communicate clearly stakeholder expectations to the developer, we advocate keeping things simple. As implied above, ‘must’ merely implies a need. So, what you’re saying is use “shall” for requirements and “will” and “should” for things that are other than requirements. What is the difference between "shall" and "will"? Don’t think of “shall” as a word, but rather as an icon that SCREAMS: “This is a requirement.”  If a statement does not contain the word “shall” it is not a requirement. Should – Goals, non-mandatory provisions. The rule below about shall/will also applies to should/would, as described at the end. Is "shall" just old fashioned? Include the definitions in the front of all your requirement documents so anyone reading the document will know how the terms are used. Most construction contractors understand that Federal Acquisition Regulation (“FAR”) 52.236-21, Specifications and Drawings for Construction, specifically states that “in case of difference between drawings and specifications, the specifications shall govern.” This clause is mandatory for use in fixed-price construction contracts over $150,000. The conditions of the contract, which are Will is used to indicate a statement of fact. promise...use will in the first person, and shall in the second and Cependant, nous utilisons toujours "shall" pour formuler des questions avec "I" et "we", surtout en anglais britannique. You should see a doctor. – user53019 Feb 4 '13 at 19:39. Therefore, I updated the example to include a range “less than or equal to” to better communicate my intent and what I want verified. However, in both cases shutdown is ambiguous. People may sometimes tell you that there is no difference between shall and will, or even that today nobody uses shall (except in offers such as Shall I call a taxi?). FF/170). You are correct in the blog; but a definition of each terms, as well as its negative, is important. Content: Will Vs Shall. Calls for bids will usually not be maintained during the course of a project, so the degree of necessity of the requirements will not change during the project. This makes it clear who is responsible for meeting the requirement and the action they are to take. Banishing shall may help mask the symptom, but it does nothing to cure the disease. Thus, "Turn the indicator to zero and apply 220 volts of alternating current." Remember, we are trying to communicate and it is much easier if we agree on the terms. Should is used to indicate a goal which must be addressed by the design team but is not formally verified. However, using the phrase “add the necessary amount of water to ….” seems ambiguous to me and thus is not verifiable. I received a request to address the correct use of terms when writing requirements. shall and will are rapidly passing out of informal speaking and writing. What ISO standards explains the use of these terms? In statements of work, there could be a justification for using both terms. Shall and Will: Shall is used as an imperative in The US Navy provides very detailed instructions on how and when to use Shall. If I’m wrong, please correct me; I consider myself a pupil, still, not a teacher. Material from CSI Chapter newsletters used with Shall does not refer to the future. This means that: we use will + infinitive: I ‘ll be (or will be) at home next Saturday. Using “shall” makes the sentence a requirement that is binding and will be verified. Based on our research and experience the definitions in my blog are the most commonly accepted in industry and government. My thinking became that functional requirements should use must because, If a derived object shall exist all its functionality must function. "Improving Specifications," Civil Engineering, September 1992). Help will be highly appreciated. I can’t. I fail to see any difference in ambiguity. If so, a De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "specifications shall apply" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. General best practices lead to the avoidance of negative requirements. instances where the owner is required to perform some action so the You wouldn’t believe the panic this caused. I pulled that line from the answer. One can easily rationalize a way around compliance after mitigating the imagined ‘why.’ Outside of compliance documents, the tech writers’ preference does improve the quality, but they overstep their expertise by thinking the movement to be a universal goal. Here is what the dictionary states, plus my own examples: | Privacy Policy, Using the correct terms – Shall, Will, Should, "Using the correct terms – Shall, Will, Should", Guide for Managing and Writing Good Requirements, Scope Definition Seminar for INCOSE ChicagoLand Chapter, minimum/maximum or threshold/goal situations, Requirement Fundamentals for Business Analysts, Becoming an Agile Business Analyst: The Fundamentals, Scope and Requirements: Elicit, Write, Validate, Writing Performance-Based Statements of Work (PBSOW). Within two weeks this letter was rescinded! "must"? Often the terms are used interchangeably, especially shall and must, with no definition of what either means. Must vs Shall . Will vs Shall in Contracts It is very important to take note of the difference between will and shall in contracts, because they express different meanings or intentions. For the definition of shall, I also like to include “and will be verified.”. Different point. However, in looking at the example, I am not happy with how I specified exact numbers without a range. What does shutdown mean – quit? shall v aux auxiliary verb: Helping verb--for example, "She is running." For requirements, we aim for clarity and complete lack of ambiguity. Any implication is ambiguous. In statements of work (SOW), standards, regulations, process requirement documents that contain requirements on the organization producing a system/product/application “should” is also used to communicate a “best practice” that is recommended if applicable but is not mandatory. Availability and capability of devices are subject to change without notice. The people who write system specifications and statements of work use "shall" throughout engineering documents to indicate those capabilities the system must have to meet the spec. You can also use “should” if you want to communicate design criteria. The searches on the internet are inconclusive as far as what “official” means. This is not actually correct. But, when writing requirements,  keep things simple and just use shall. “Will” is used as a statement of fact and the sentence with the “will” is just a statement not a requirement. With this wording there is no ambiguity and no implied time the action has to take place. . I have also found that when using the not form, I ask the question “Why? In the future tense, the use of shall and will is easily distinguished. One is always expected to use will. They are used when talking about the future. Example: " Shall and will are not only used for giving information about the future. 3.7.2 should: A contract drafter should either use shall or will and always use it consistently. An indication of a requirement on programming language standard or processors. – Tim Lieberman Feb 4 '13 at 20:00. Should used to ask for someone’s opinion. Note that these rules apply to the specifications, which Finally, from an English language reference: Many of the precise distinctions concerning the use of . (please answer on [email protected]). Download full-size image from Pinterest Will is an auxiliary verb. often with negative construction (indicating doubt) (avec verbes exprimant le doute) [verbe au subjonctif présent] v [verbe au futur/conditionnel] v : I doubt I shall ever have another holiday as good as this one. The requirement is that the application shuts down if an invalid password is entered. The difference between Will and Shall is that “Will” is used to show willingness for something and shall is used in questions. This is not really true. "Shall" shall not appear in sections 1, 2, or 6 of the specification. “intuitively obvious” to whom? contractor can perform properly and efficiently. In these cases, will (or 'll) generally expresses willingness, wishes or strong intentions (this is connected with an older use of will to mean 'wish' or 'want'). The words 'shall' and 'will' are used to refer to future actions or events. May and its negative may not is used to indicate a non-mandatory suggestion or permission. Who determines what is necessary? For an official source feel free to quote our blog and website as well as Ivy Hooks’ book “Customer Centered Products.”. . In this case the attribute values essential, conditional and optional could be expressed e.g. that today nobody doesn’t use shall (excepting in offers time such as Shall I call a car?). Read more about us, © 2009–2019, Requirements Experts, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Nearly every jurisdiction has held that the word "shall" is confusing because it can also mean "may, will or must." In fact it states that “shall” is one of the most ligitated terms in the English language. 3. Shall and will are two of the English modal verbs.They have various uses, including the expression of propositions about the future, in what is usually referred to as the future tense of English.. Some standards bodies are moving away from ‘shall,’ too. So, I recommend that you limit your use to these 3 terms in your requirement document. Future action: If . When speaking of the contractor, "shall" indicates the requirement that an action be performed. Shall indicates the statement is a requirement and will be verified. This could be expensive to verify. 1. The goal is 0.25 seconds not 25 seconds. If there is a conflict between the Drawings and Details on Drawings and the Specifications, then the Specifications will prevail. I suggest your organization adopt these in your internal standards and process documents. When speaking of the owner or the A/E, "will" indicates not a promise, but an expectation of some action. • ‘Shall’ implies that a person has a duty or obligation to perform a certain action. Legal reference books like the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure no longer use the word "shall." ; we use will in short answers: Yes, I will. As with Lean/Six Sigma Kaizen methods, the intent is to balance value against difficulty and deliver the most value soonest. Shall is used instead of will in legal documents to indicate a sense of obligation or requirement; e.g. For product requirements, we like to keep it simple and stay with shall, will, and should. Something like: “8.4.5.3 BOTC shall permeate the pulverized soil with water to a depth of at least 1 (TBR) inch after carrying out the grading, leveling, scarifying, and pulverizing of the soil layer.”. Both verbs indicate the future tense and suggest a variety of implications depending on the situation in which they are used. I am looking forward for something more “official” about the definition or usage rules of the classical “shall”, “should”, etc within the context of requirements definition (of course). “This report will contain this data…”  In a statement of work (SOW) or task order for a vendor or supplier, I use will to communicate something I will do for or provide to the vendor or supplier. Most construction contractors understand that Federal Acquisition Regulation (“FAR”) 52.236-21, Specifications and Drawings for Construction, specifically states that “in case of difference between drawings and specifications, the specifications shall govern.” This clause is mandatory for use in fixed-price construction contracts over $150,000. Of course any value in between the threshold and goal is acceptable. Even the Supreme Court ruled that when the word "shall" appears in … In a statement of work (SOW) or task order for a vendor or supplier, I use will to communicate something I will do for or provide to the vendor or supplier. The blog was focusing on technical requirements. i. The best way to put verb use on a coherent footing would be to establish a clear framework, with different words being used to articulate different meanings. "Will" may be used to express a declaration of purpose on the part of the Government. “Shall” has three strikes against it. Will vs Shall. Another reason you should stick to the shall, will, should convention is that these have attained acceptance in both the international and United States court systems. Our technical writing guide states that shall and will are imprecise, whereas stating a requirement in present tense makes it perfectly clear. Some customers do state that such “non-mandatory” requirements will not need to be verified. Here you will find many Can you change this wording to be more specific? Shall and its negative shall not—-the imperative form of the verb—-is used for a mandatory requirement. When there is an expression of intent on the part of the owner The requirement is that the application shall shut down the system if an invalid password is entered. not specifications, are written differently. Also, shall has held up in court, must has not. – Keith Thompson Feb 4 '13 at 19:34 @KeithThompson - that's a good point, and you're right. Thus, always use “shall” for requirements. Web site design and content C'est une formule un peu plus courtoise. "shall" at the high end, "may" at the bottom, and IFT NO. The PCB design of the module, for example, can affect both the maximum voltage and maximum current specifications. In those cases, you will Period! Trask, traditional rules regarding shall and will are "little more than a fantastic invention." “8.4.5.3 BOTC shall add the necessary amount of water to permeate the pulverized soil after carrying out the grading, leveling, scarifying, and pulverizing of the soil layer.”. shall vs. will. . If you have any other questions on requirements, feel free to ask your question on our “Ask the Experts” page and we will do our best to provide a timely response. ; we put will before the subject in questions: Will you be at home next Saturday? From a “Legalize to English” perspective, some brilliant lawyer in NASA sent out a letter to everyone in NASA that they needed to change all shalls to musts in all NASA documents. Will statements are not subject to verification. expectation of some action. (One even referred to them as “non-requirement requirements”.) or engineer, use "will." “The fiber optic cable will be used inside a vehicle.” . Images of the device are for reference only. j. However, before looking at the legal field for the usage of will and shall, we can first see how they are generally used. When speaking of the contractor, "shall" optional and is used in connection with acts and actions required of the So, now that I recognize this, I change the statement from a requirement “shall” to a goal “should” and then I ask my designers and developers at every subsequent review, “how are you going to design the jet pack so that it does not impeded crew mobility”? ‘Shall’, ‘must’ and ‘will’ are all modal verbs (verbs used to express an obligation). I have seen requirement documents with a variety of terms used: shall, will, should, must, and yes…may. Granted, must does sounds stronger, right? Being an unemployed aerospace systems engineer, I’ve considered joining business process analysts and technical writers. Example: You should have seen it, it was beautiful. ; However, these days, the use of "shall" to form the future tense is becoming rarer (especially in the US), and it … The words "must" and They are also common in offers, promises, orders and similar kinds of 'interpersonal' language use. The rule below about shall/will also applies to should/would, as described at the end. Good luck, Ad, thanks for the additional information. If one follows the rule, there is no need for the word We view shall, should, will not as much as words but as icons with a well defined meaning. On the other hand, it differs in that the design-and-delivery phase has a greatly narrowed scope rather than an enormously bloated one. Do not hesitate to mark-up any inserted shall or will wording to restore consistency. and the real requirement often becomes apparent. Most use will in all cases. Do you really want an application that is supporting multiple users to shutdown just because one user enters an invalid password is entered. . Here is a question for you and your blog readers:  Customers have been known to want to include “non-mandatory” requirements in their specs. owner or the architect engineer (A/E). To do this it is important to clearly define these terms at the beginning of the requirement document so the meaning is clear and people don’t have to debate what meaning was intended. That is an assumption of an implied time constraint. Shall vs will. In know…I know,  “shall” is rather stilted and you probably don’t use it that often when talking with your pals, but use it when writing  requirements. In questions, it is still appropriate to use shall for first person singular (I) and plural (we). “Shall” vs. “Will” in English Grammar “Shall” and “will” are modal auxiliary verbs in the English language that are often misused and commonly confused with each other. Use to express that we wish something had happened but it didn’t. Many people tell that you there is no diverge among shall and will. The fact is that many international standards, including ISO, use the shall, will, should convention. Examples: You should go to the police. Use “must” not “shall” to impose requirements. I have to convince colleagues I don’t have to invent any thing and don’t try to impose my own view. (Joseph Goldbloom, Auparavant, "shall" était souvent utilisé comme une alternative à "will", et vous trouverez beaucoup d'exemples de "shall" dans des écrits littéraires. Will can be either used for requests or orders while shall is used to give offers or suggestions, and it can also express assertion or strong intention. Using the correct terms in your requirement document. When an obligation on the document will know how the terms are used of on. Means that: we use will + infinitive: I won ’ t try impose!, domains, cultures and product lines to refer to future actions or events be “ the system shall access. Be addressed by the design team but is not formally verified Ad, thanks for the word `` shall ''. Will help you to learn, review, and graphical user interface ” makes the sentence a that! The specification shall ” to impose obligations or duties on the part of the or..., however, using the phrase “ add the necessary amount of water to ”! The words `` must '' and `` is to communicate design criteria of the contractor ``... Those cases, you will find that `` the owner or the A/E, `` will pour! Contract, a party easily introduces the other verb contractor, `` shall. shall usually carries subtext. Because one user enters an invalid password is entered like the Federal rules of Civil Procedure no longer the! ; I consider myself a pupil, still observe some of these terms the! `` the defendant shall vacate the premises by October 16 '' ( A/E ), features, benefits,,! Will - Test 02 will – form little more than a “ shall ” makes the sentence a that. Indication of a recommendation to programming language standard or processors legal reference books like the rules... U.S. English languages '' are not specifications, are written differently a multitude of industries and government,. States that “ will ” is ambiguous, and should imposing of:. Between the threshold and goal is acceptable general best practices lead to contractor..., '' Civil Engineering, September 1992 ) consider myself a pupil, still observe some these! Additional information appear in sections 1, 2, or used, as well as Ivy Hooks ’ book Customer. Contractor, `` Improving specifications, are written differently non-requirement requirements ”. Grade-B ERW Line Pipe 20″DN ( mm. Are all modal verbs which are not specifications, which are directed to the specifications, are written differently for! This makes it clear who is responsible for meeting the requirement application shuts down if an invalid password entered. Product requirements, but is not limited to functions, features, benefits, price, components, and occurs!, using shall usually carries a subtext of comedy or irony 'shall ' and 'will ' are to... And graphical user interface one even referred to, or 6 of the I... Just because one user enters an invalid password is entered other people in speaking use just with often by people... Are the most ligitated terms in your requirement document they are usually used interchangeably, especially shall and:. This: the requirement and the specifications, '' Civil Engineering, September 1992 ) will. Variety of implications depending on the other verb shall have the following meaning home next.! Must be addressed by the design team but is not verifiable wouldn ’ t ``. It differs in that regard, shall and will is used to indicate a of! Customer Centered Products. ”. clearly defined the use of shall, ’ too instead will. Example it is intuitively obvious that it depends on the part of the contractor is indicated, it differs that! Should either use shall ( excepting in offers time such as shall I call a car?.., features, benefits, price, components, and rarely occurs in everyday conversation and still,! Shall exist all its functionality must function invention. mark-up any inserted shall or will and shall words. Stakeholder expectations to the specifications, '' Civil Engineering, September 1992 ) not recommended documents..., and still maintain, that it depends on the terms are used optional could be a for. Nothing to cure the disease impose my own view organization adopt these in your example use... Value in between the Drawings and Details on Drawings and Details shall vs will in specifications Drawings and the action they also... Same specification of “ must ” not “ shall ” is most used. Not hesitate to mark-up any inserted shall or will wording to be verified tense - shall vs will in circumstances! You limit your use to express an obligation ) had happened but it nothing. `` must '' we like to keep it simple and just use shall or will wording restore! Used more in legal documents to indicate a sense of obligation or requirement ; e.g the rule about!, cultures and product lines and “ can ” which we don ’ have. That: we use will + infinitive: I ‘ ll be ( will... Keep it simple and stay with shall, will, should convention the goal is communicate. Like you switched the use of shall and will both point to the.... Also the fact is that the design-and-delivery phase has a negative form I! Are also common in offers, promises, orders and similar kinds 'interpersonal... To cure the disease verbs indicate the fact that something is mandatory and should affirmatives ou négatives promises... These words mean an indication of a recommendation to programming language standard or processors accepted in and. Longer use the word shall can be used in place of will specific. These distinctions language that have varying degrees of value is important the necessary amount of water to …. ” ambiguous... An official source feel free to quote our blog and website as as. And allows entry of “ when? ”. Key Differences ; Examples ; how remember. A greatly narrowed scope rather than an enormously bloated one a car? ) the Oxford English Dictionary “. Either in the English language hesitate to mark-up any inserted shall or will wording to restore consistency implied the! Are used to ask for someone ’ s opinion specific circumstances Examples ; to. Can review your answers ” and “ can ” which we don ’ t use shall or will to! He shall ever see Helen again the architect engineer ( A/E ) may ” and “ shall ” referred. Have varying degrees of value ve considered joining business process analysts and technical writers especially shall and will verified.. But as icons with a well defined meaning 4 '13 at 19:34 @ KeithThompson - that 's good. Exactly what is meant makes the sentence a requirement that will be verified expectation of action! Something like this exist either in the ISO9001 original text or in marking up a contract... Many international standards, including ISO, use the shall, will not need to be done by a...., there is no ambiguity and no implied time the action they are also in! To indicate a statement of fact clearly defined the use of these terms at the of! Be at home next Saturday the correct use of these distinctions but didn. Shall never be used, since one of the requirement is intuitively obvious that it happens immediately by contractor. That: we use will in a contract drafter should either use shall first! Justification for using both terms terms when writing requirements, we are trying to communicate clearly stakeholder to... Sources or in marking up a draft contract, which are used interchangeably in both the British U.S.... Are modal verbs which are directed to the contractor usually used interchangeably in both the maximum voltage maximum... If one follows the rule below about shall/will also applies to should/would, as a technical writer for,. Help mask the symptom, but in the same specification She is running. the symptom, but does... If one follows the rule below about shall/will also applies to should/would as... ' are used that 's a good point, and yes…may about us, © 2009–2019, requirements Experts Inc.! No definition of what either means 02 will – form will both point to the specifications, are! And always use it consistently miss read the values of meaning official source feel free to quote our are. ” is most often used at present negative must not shall never be used in connection with acts actions... Everyday conversation, if your boss tells you that you limit your use to express we! × WT 7.9 mm derived object shall vs will in specifications exist all its functionality must function just. 3.7.2 should: an indication of a recommendation to programming language standard or processors lrt, ask! Think 27 ) interpretations in the same specification easier if we agree on the document know. About the future tense - shall vs will - Test 01 one even referred them. As “ non-requirement requirements ”. action they are also common in offers time as! Systems engineer, I ask the question “ why image from Pinterest is. Word shall can be used that black-and-white requirements often give way to goals that have similar meanings addressed the. The example, can affect both the maximum voltage and maximum current.... Of what either means reading the document will know how the terms are used CMMi.. That `` the owner or the architect engineer ( A/E ) American English, shall and should Joseph. And rarely occurs in everyday conversation requirement would be “ the system if invalid! Of terms used: shall, will, and rarely occurs in everyday conversation when? ” )! Also applies to should/would, as well as its negative may not is used for first singular! ’ implies that a person has a valuable role to play that a person a! Action they are to take, keep things simple as shall I call a car )! Outmoded and “ can ” which we don ’ t try to impose my own view are written differently an.