The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either First Lord of the Treasury (office in commission) or more rarely Chancellor of the Exchequer (the last of whom was Balfour in 1905). The long tenure of the wartime prime minister William Pitt the Younger (1783–1801), combined with the mental illness of George III, consolidated the power of the post. An example or this situation was in 2016 in the United Kingdom when Theresa May was elected leader of the Conservative Party while David Cameron was still prime minister. This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:28. Prof. Dr. Andreas Pinkwart Minister für Wirtschaft, Innovation, Digitalisierung und Energie geboren am 18. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. However, at the ensuing 1962 French legislative election, de Gaulle's coalition won an increased majority, and Pompidou was reappointed prime minister. She remained continuously in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each House of Commons after a general election to reshuffle her cabinet. The few exceptions to the rule are Germany and Austria, whose heads of government titles are almost always translated as Chancellor; Monaco, whose head of government is referred to as the Minister of State; and Vatican City, for which the head of government is titled the Secretary of State. Canada has a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution, partly formally codified and partly uncodified. For example, Margaret Thatcher was only ever appointed prime minister on one occasion, in 1979. The prime minister of the French Republic (French: Premier ministre français), sometimes shortened to premier, is the head of government of France. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government was formally called president of the Council of Ministers (French: Président du Conseil des Ministres), generally shortened to president of the Council (French: … (Some constitutional experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest that a taoiseach should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election.) A … The convention in the English language is to call nearly all national heads of government "prime minister" (sometimes the equivalent term "premier") except in the cases where the head of state and head of government are fused into one position, usually a presidency, regardless of the correct title of the head of government as applied in his or her respective country. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as (political) cohabitation. Wilfried Martens, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows: In the Russian constitution the prime minister is actually titled Chairman of the government while the Irish prime minister is called the Taoiseach (which is rendered into English as prime minister), and in Israel he is Rosh HaMemshalah, meaning "head of the government". In practice, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the cabinet by adopting a motion of censure, the choice of prime minister must reflect the will of the majority in the Assembly. Ukraine's constitution (1996) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Ukraine. In most modern parliamentary systems, the prime minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution. [2], The term prime minister in the current sense originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole (whose official title was First Lord of the Treasury). Bahrain's former prime minister, Sheikh Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah occupied the post from 1970 to November 2020, making him the longest serving non-elected prime minister. Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. No parliamentary vote takes place on who forms a government. 2. The main exceptions to this system have been the United States and the presidential republics in Latin America modelled on the U.S. system, in which the president directly exercises executive authority. The President of India; Rajya Sabha; Lok Sabha; The Cabinet Secretariat; Press Information Bureau; Gandhi; Just Climate Action India @ cop21 . The prime minister proposes a list of ministers to the president of the Republic. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government was formally called president of the Council of Ministers (French: Président du Conseil des Ministres), generally shortened to president of the Council (French: Président du Conseil). The head of government of the People's Republic of China is referred to as the Premier of the State Council and the premier of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is also appointed by the president, but requires no approval by the legislature. Australia's constitution makes no mention of a Prime Minister of Australia and the office only exists by convention, based on the British model. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist"; indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. Recognised by at least one United Nations member. Spain's constitution (1978) regulates the appointment, dismissal, powers, functions and duties of the President of the Government. He is referred to as "president" in both the Persian and English languages. Thailand's constitution (1932) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Thailand. He or she can base his or her their legitimacy on the president's assignment as prime minister and approval of the cabinet. The term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu[1] after he was named to head the royal council in 1624. The RPR had an alliance with the UDF, which gave them a majority. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. Other members of Government are appointed by the president "on the recommendation of the prime minister". Italy's constitution (1948) lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Council of Ministers. 1. Juri Ratas has resigned but denies any wrongdoing after a probe was opened into his … Czech Republic's constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal. Prime Minister’s itinerary for Monday, January 18, 2021. Most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system, Constitutional basis for the position in different countries. In the case of Ireland, the head of government is occasionally referred to as the Taoiseach by English speakers. Taiwan's constitution (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Executive Yuan. The prime minister can "engage the responsibility" of his or her Government before the National Assembly. The 1958 Constitution includes several provisions intended to strengthen the prime minister's position, for instance by restricting the legislature's power to censure the government. Most prime ministers in parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term in office and in effect may remain in power through a number of elections and parliaments. Norway's constitution (1814) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Norway. 3. Despite the fact that Mitterrand's own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, it did not have an absolute majority. See also "First Minister", "Premier", "Chief Minister", "Chancellor", "Taoiseach", "Minister of State (Statsminister)", "President of the Government", "President of the Council of Minister" and "Secretary of State": alternative titles usually equivalent in meaning to, or translated as, "prime minister". Instead, her or his powers, duties, appointment and termination follow uncodified conventions. Conversely, some Prime Minister's Offices incorporate the role of Cabinet, while Australia’s Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet joins them at par. In Israel, the Prime Minister's executive office is officially titled the "Prime Minister's Office" in English, but the original Hebrew term can also be translated as the Prime Minister's Ministry. In practice, however, this proved insufficient to command the confidence of France's multi-party parliament. Estonian Prime Minister Juri Ratas said he would resign on Wednesday amid corruption allegations against his political party. In Australia, the Prime Minister is expected to step down if they loses the majority support of their party under a spill motion as have many such as Tony Abbott, Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd and Malcolm Turnbull. During the period between the time it is clear that the incumbent government has been defeated at a general election, and the actual swearing-in of the new prime minister by the monarch, governor-general, or president, that person is referred to as the "prime minister-elect" or "prime minister-designate". … As well as being head of government, being prime minister may require holding other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. On September 27, 1938, when negotiations between Hitler and Chamberlain were strained, the British Prime Minister addressed the British people. Go to Main Site . Neither term is strictly correct from a constitutional point of view, but they have wide acceptance. The last prime minister not to be First Lord of the Treasury was Lord Salisbury at the turn of the 20th century. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. George II and George III made strenuous efforts to reclaim the personal power of the monarch, but the increasing complexity and expense of government meant that a minister who could command the loyalty of the Commons was increasingly necessary. The U.K.’s Cabinet Office includes the Prime Minister’s Office. The Republic of Korea's constitution (1987) sections 86–87 list the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea. Today, the prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. Bangladesh's constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal. Often, he was little more than primus inter pares, and was more the cabinet's chairman than its leader. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. As a result, cabinets were often toppled twice a year, and there were long stretches where France was left with only a caretaker government. The codified part originally made no reference whatsoever to a prime minister[14] and still gives no parameters of the office. In some Commonwealth countries prime ministers and former prime ministers are styled Right Honourable due to their position (the Prime Minister of Canada, for example). Malaysia's constitution (1957) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malaysia. In parliamentary systems a prime minister may enter into office by several means. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council (the then name for the Irish cabinet). In the Nordic countries the prime minister is called Statsminister, meaning "Minister of State". Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. Excerpts of this speech and another before the House of Commons are included here. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use. The prime minister of the French Republic (French: Premier ministre français), sometimes shortened to premier, is the head of government of France. Contrary to popular perception, the two posts are separate and need not be held by the one person. ", Cabinet department / Office of the Prime Minister, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prime_minister&oldid=1002564749, Articles needing additional references from May 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles needing additional references from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel, Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 01:18. In some presidential and all semi-presidential systems, such as those of France, Russia or South Korea, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the president but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the president and managing the civil service. Another example is the Thirty-fourth government of Israel (2015-2019)[update], when Benjamin Netanyahu at one point served as the Prime Minister and those of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation, Economy, Defense and Interior. A prime minister is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.Under those systems, a prime minister is not the head of state of their respective state nor a monarch; rather the prime minister is the head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic … In non-Commonwealth countries the prime minister may be entitled to the style of Excellency like a president. Laurent Fabius1984–1986 (1946-08-20) 20 August 1946 (age 74), Édith Cresson1991–1992 (1934-01-27) 27 January 1934 (age 86), Édouard Balladur1993–1995 (1929-05-02) 2 May 1929 (age 91), Alain Juppé1995–1997 (1945-08-15) 15 August 1945 (age 75), Lionel Jospin1997–2002 (1937-07-12) 12 July 1937 (age 83), Jean-Pierre Raffarin2002–2005 (1948-08-03) 3 August 1948 (age 72), Dominique de Villepin2005–2007 (1953-11-14) 14 November 1953 (age 67), François Fillon2007–2012 (1954-03-04) 4 March 1954 (age 66), Jean-Marc Ayrault2012–2014 (1950-01-25) 25 January 1950 (age 71), Manuel Valls2014–2016 (1962-08-13) 13 August 1962 (age 58), Bernard Cazeneuve2016–2017 (1963-06-02) 2 June 1963 (age 57), Édouard Philippe2017–2020 (1970-11-28) 28 November 1970 (age 50), Several incarnations since the Ancien Régime, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, "French National Assembly – Assemblée nationale", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prime_Minister_of_France&oldid=993319189, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The only person to serve as prime minister more than once under the Fifth Republic was, The youngest appointed prime minister was, The only woman who was appointed at the head of government is. The extent to which those decisions lie with the prime minister or president depends upon whether they are of the same party. Under some presidential systems, such as South Korea and Peru, the prime minister is not the head of government; rather, he or she is only the leader or most senior member of the cabinet. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state. Jean Castex was appointed Prime Minister on 3 July 2020. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State (French: Conseil d'État). * * * * * First of all I must say something to those who … The nature of his questions left the French in little doubt that he was on board for the concept. PM interacts with Chancellor of Federal Republic of Germany through video-teleconference. [2] He is, as the representative of the government, the only member of the government able to introduce legislation in Parliament. The title was first referred to on government documents during the administration of Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British Order of precedence until 1905. [2] Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the president has to consult the prime minister and the presidents of both Houses of Parliament (article 12). Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. August 1960 in Berg-Seelscheid Werdegang Abitur 1980: Mitglied der FDP Ausbildung zum Bankkaufmann Studium der Volks- und Betriebswirtschaftslehre an den Universitäten Münster und Bonn 1987: Abschluss als Diplom-Volkswirt 1987 bis 1991: Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter … In the United Kingdom the prime minister and former prime ministers may appear to also be styled Right Honourable, however this is not due to their position as head of government but as a privilege of being current members of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.[12]. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, and Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy; therefore, being implicitly compared with Richelieu was no compliment to Walpole. [15] The Constitution Act, 1982, adds passing reference to the "Prime Minister of Canada" [French: premier ministre du Canada] but as detail of conferences of federal and provincial first ministers.)[16]. The United Kingdom's constitution, being uncodified and largely unwritten, makes no mention of a prime minister. Under the Third Republic, the French Constitutional Laws of 1875 vested the president of the council with similar formal powers to those which at that time the British prime minister possessed. Poland and Hungary do have some reason to believe the rule of law provisions would have been used as a way of forcing compliance, with European Parliament vice president Katarina Barley, of Germany, having suggested they should be “starved financially” before the vote at which they exercised … Eden did not formally commit himself to the plan, but that was in itself a decision. It is at this point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge.[5][6]. The Prime Minister's executive office is usually called the Office of the Prime Minister or Cabinet Office. The following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists. Japan's constitution (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Japan. Click Here for Donation Details About PM CARES Fund. The Prime Minister's Department is also used, as is Cabinet Department. Not recognised by any United Nations members. As appointment to the Privy Council normally lasts for life, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Sheikh Khalid bin Khalifa bin Abdul Aziz Al Thani, List of current prime ministers by date of assumption of office, List of current heads of state and government, List of democracy and election-related topics, "Testament Politique du Cardinal Duc de Richelieu, Premier Ministre de France sous le Règne de Louïs XIII", "A Globalizing Constitutionalism?, Views from the Postcolony, 1945-2000", "How the Westminster Parliamentary System was exported around the World", "Finland's new 34-year-old prime minister to be youngest in the world, backed by all-female leaders", The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders Since 1945, "Prime Ministers and Parliaments: The Long View, Walpole to Blair. As a later prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing.". The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies (such as Belgium, Denmark, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Malaysia, Morocco, Spain,[note 2] Sweden, Thailand, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom) and in parliamentary republics, in which the head of state is an elected official (such as Finland, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia (1945–1959), Ireland, Pakistan, Portugal, Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Turkey (1923–2018)) and Italy). In parliamentary systems, governments are generally required to have the confidence of the lower house of parliament (though a small minority of parliaments, by giving a right to block supply to upper houses, in effect make the cabinet responsible to both houses, though in reality upper houses, even when they have the power, rarely exercise it). The current officeholder is Jean Castex, who was appointed on 3 July 2020. Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose supply, most constitutional systems require either: The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition of parliament to the electorate. In the UK, where devolved government is in place, the leaders of the Scottish, Northern Irish and Welsh Governments are styled First Minister. Malta's constitution (1964) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malta. Jüri Ratas resigned as prime minister of Estonia and head of the Centre Party on Wednesday, amid allegations of corruption against his party. Hungary's constitution (2012) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Hungary. Prime Minister’s itinerary for Sunday, January 17, 2021. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, and the monarch usually presided over its meetings. Itineraries Ottawa, Ontario - January 17, 2021. The president of France appoints but cannot dismiss the prime minister. Itineraries Ottawa, Ontario - January 17, 2021. Between 1921 and 1972, when Northern Ireland was a Majority Rule Parliament the head of government would be known as the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. This process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, and either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically (article 49). Pakistan's constitution (1973) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Some remain in place,” Polish prime minister Mateusz Morawiecki explained in 2017. Germany's Basic Law (1949) lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal chancellor. In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the President of the Government (Presidente del Gobierno). The prestige of British institutions in the 19th century and the growth of the British Empire saw the British model of cabinet government, headed by a prime minister, widely copied, both in other European countries and in British colonial territories as they developed self-government. PM’s inaugural address at the National Metrology Conclave in New Delhi. Other common forms include president of the council of ministers (for example in Italy, Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), President of the Executive Council, or Minister-President. All prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In such systems, the head of state or their official representative (e.g., monarch, president, governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers. Additionally, Article 20[2] stipulates that the Government "shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation", and it includes domestic issues, while the president concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in France. By the late 20th century,[10][11] the majority of the world's countries had a prime minister or equivalent minister, holding office under either a constitutional monarchy or a ceremonial president. Estonian prime minister quits over corruption probe. In India, the Prime Minister is called Pradhān Mantrī, literally meaning the Head of ministers or Prime Minister. Which Members, though, are left to uncodified convention. In practice the prime minister acts on the impulse of the president to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation in which case his responsibilities are akin to those of a prime minister in a parliamentary system. In federations, the head of government of a federated entity (e.g., a Canadian province, a Brazilian state, etc.) Prime Minister Justin Trudeau speaks with Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany. Prime Minister’s itinerary for … The Constitution Act, 1867 only establishes the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, to which all federal ministers (among others) are appointed and with Members[note 3] of which the Monarch or her Governor General normally performs executive government (as Queen- or Governor-in-Council). [7][8][9] In some places alternative titles such as "premier", "chief minister", "first minister of state", "president of the council" or "chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same. Direct the actions of the president 's assignment as prime minister is referred to as ( Simplified Chinese: ;! 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